Groundwater suitability for irrigation and domestic use applying CCME WQI model and GIS in East El-Owainat, Egypt

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Soils and Water, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt

2 Groundwater Sector, Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Department of Soils and Water, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt.

4 Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut Branch 71524, Assiut, Egypt.


Groundwater is the major source of irrigation and domestic water use in the East El-Owainat region since it is accessible and pollutant-free. The measured qualitative groundwater variables (salinity, alkalinity, total dissolved salts, total hardness and soluble ions), irrigation indexes and Canadian water quality index (CCME-WQI) were calculated to estimate water quality. Piper's trilinear diagram showed that over 85% of the total samples exhibit Na-Cl facies, indicating that the mineral structure of the water reservoir has a substantial effect on the chemical characteristics of aquifers. The tested groundwater samples revealed that 59.68% of the salt assemblage consisted of NaCl, Na2SO4, MgSO4, and Ca (HCO3)2, illustrating the effects of leaching and dissolving evaporating deposits as well as the intermediate stages of chemical evolution. About 39% of the total samples had Fe concentrations higher than what is acceptable for human consumption. The US Salinity Diagram revealed that the bulk of the tested samples belong to the C3S1 group, which defines a high salinity with a low Na type. According to CCME-WQI, 80 and 97% of groundwater samples are acceptable for drinking and excellent for irrigation, respectively. A factor analysis suggests that ion exchange and groundwater-rock exchanges, all of which are connected to the natural water source, have a favorable impact on the water quality. Groundwater quality based on the CCME-WQI index remains suitable for human and cultivation purposes. For the sake of ecosystem safety, groundwater quality must be monitored on a regular basis.


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