Sustainable Agriculture as Influenced by Landform in Qena Governorate, Egypt

Document Type : Original Article


1 Soil and Water Department, Faculty of agriculture, AL-Azhar University

2 Department of Soils and Water, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71524, Egypt


Ensuring sustainability of agricultural is imperative for Egypt's modest national income, with a focus on improving land production and conserving natural resources. The urgency arises due to population growth and new land reclamation, posing sustainability challenges such as soil characteristics, alkalinity, salinity limitations, socio-economic factors, and environmental hazards. This study evaluates the sustainability of agricultural status of some soils in Qena Governorate, integrating biophysical, economic viability, and social acceptability aspects, and examining their correlation with landform types. The sustainability framework encompasses five factors: productivity, security, protection, economic viability, and social acceptability. The productivity index ranges from 0.29 to 0.43, protection factors exhibit values from 0.49 to 0.90, security factors range between 0.56 and 0.90, economic viability index spans from 0.45 to 0.80, and social acceptability varies from 0.47 to 1.00. The study classifies the investigated area into two classes (S3 and S4) based on the sustainable agricultural framework. The region faces challenges in local infrastructure, health facilities, and education. The results underscore a distinct correlation between sustainability indices and geomorphological units, with the Plain Valley consistently displaying the highest values, followed by the Low River terraces, Moderate River terraces, and High River terraces, while the Overflow basin consistently exhibits the lowest values. The findings emphasize that decision-makers can enhance land sustainability in the study area by focusing on two key factors: social and economic considerations, while also accounting for the impact of landform.


Main Subjects