Assessing the Efficacy of Agro-Waste Biochar-Derived Nanoparticles for Purification of Municipal Wastewater, Agricultural Drainage Water and Industrial Effluents

Document Type : Original Article


1 Damietta university

2 dementia university

3 Soil, Water and environment Research Institute, Agric. Res. Center, Egypt


Water scarcity and contamination are pressing challenges, particularly in regions like Egypt, where rapid population growth exacerbates freshwater deficits. As agricultural projects expand to meet food demand, water scarcity becomes a critical factor contributing to the food gap. Alternative sources of irrigation water, Such as wastewater, agricultural drainage water and industrial, are being explored, despite potential heavy metal contamination. Therefore, the primary objective of the study is to assess the effectiveness of utilizing nanoparticles biochar derived from agro wastes in the treatment of wastewater, specifically to make it suitable for irrigation purposes under laboratory experiment. The present study utilized wastewater samples sourced from three different sources [Agricultural drainage water (NO.1), industrial effluents (NO.2) and municipal wastewater (NO.3)]. These samples were evaluated for suitability for irrigation based on international standards. The nanoparticles biochar derived from agro wastes [specifically, rice straw (RS), palm fronds (PF), and sugar cane residues (SCR)] were assessed for their capability to remove heavy metals from the examined wastewater samples. The analysis of wastewater samples from drains NO.1, NO.2, and NO.3 revealed crucial findings regarding their suitability for irrigation and associated environmental and health risks. pH values indicate that all wastewater samples are suitable for irrigation without requiring pH adjustments. Wastewater from drain NO.1 falls within acceptable salinity limits for irrigation. However, samples from drains NO.2 and NO.3 exhibit EC values exceeding acceptable limits, posing challenges for irrigation use. Wastewater from drains NO.2 and NO.3 contains Na+ concentrations surpassing acceptable levels for irrigation, indicating potential hazards. Wastewater samples contain various heavy metals, including aluminum, mercury, silver, barium, calcium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, lead, potassium, strontium, zinc, arsenic, and bismuth. Some heavy metals like arsenic show exceptionally high concentrations, indicating potential environmental and health risks. On the other hand, Nanobiochar materials derived from rice straw, palm fronds, and sugar cane residues demonstrated strong capabilities in adsorbing and removing contaminants from wastewater. All materials led to reductions in parameter values compared to untreated samples, with the most notable decrease observed in nanobiochar derived from sugar cane residues. These findings underscore the potential of nanobiochar-based treatments in enhancing wastewater quality and promoting sustainable water management practices. Generally, the practical application of nanobiochar materials derived from plant waste sources holds promise for improving wastewater treatment processes, thereby contributing to enhanced water quality and sustainable agricultural practices.


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