To What Extent Can Maillard Reaction Products Influence the Probiotic and Harmful Bacteria?

Document Type : Review papers


1 Doctoral School of Animal Husbandry, University of Debrecen, Böszörményi Street 138, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary

2 Institute of Food Science, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, Böszörményi Street 138, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary

3 Soil and Water Dept., Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, 33516 Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt

4 Institute of Animal Science, Biotechnology and Nature Conservation, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and Environmental Management, University of Debrecen, 138 Böszörményi Street, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary


Maillard reaction (MR) is a non-enzymatic browning process, which helps to produce flavor and aroma, and different compounds with different health effects in the food and feed. The reaction is between reducing carbohydrates (reducing sugars) and amino compounds and it can be classified into three stages (initial, intermediate, and final). Depending on the reaction and storage conditions, activity and complexity of reactants used tools for environment control, and applied biotechnological applications, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. This review aims to analyze the activities and mechanisms of components forming by the Maillard reaction and the most common bioactive Maillard reaction products (MRPs) with prebiotic, antifungal, and antibacterial activity. Moreover, the study of the possible formation of toxic chemicals and having a look at the elimination ways of this potential problem was also an important goal in this review.

The main aim of this review is to address the benefits of Maillard reaction products, which have been identified in previous studies to have antimicrobial and prebiotic effects, for the treatment of human pathogens. The present study will help to understand the positive and negative sides of Maillard reaction.


Main Subjects

Volume 63, Issue 2
June 2023
Pages 177-185
  • Receive Date: 25 January 2023
  • Revise Date: 17 April 2023
  • Accept Date: 03 March 2023
  • First Publish Date: 17 April 2023